Robert Morris & Eva Hesse

Robert Morris:

Morris coined the term ‘anti-form’, inspired by Jackson Pollock’s dripping technique. ‘Anti-form’ refers to the process in which art work is made, where you relinquish control and exploit chance. In 1967 Morris became interested in the sculptural possibilities of softer materials and began a series of Untitled works which have been informally referred to as ‘Tangle(s)’. Relinquishing control, he allowed strips of randomly cut, heavy industrial felt to drop and fall into a pile, exaggerating the subtle pliability of his chosen material.

Morris has also created many other works using felt where he has strategically cut and placed the felt in such a way as to form beautifully symmetrical sculptures, allowing the felt to sag and drape under its natural weight. Again utilizing ‘anti-form’, he allows gravity to contort the felt, which in turn demonstrates its weight and flexibility, producing soft undulating forms.Fg100781


Eva Hesse:

Known for her pioneering use of materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics, Hesse is one of the artists who ushered in the post-minimal art movement in the late 1960s. Hesse preferred her sculptures to lie somewhere between ugliness and beauty. She stayed true to the raw nature of her materials, not manipulating them too much, and allowing the process of construction to be visible. Unlike traditional minimalism Hesse’s work can be described using words such as: strangled, clumsy, knotted, choked, sagging, distended, puckered, and creased. All words that can be used to describe the body, which is a common theme throughout her work. There is also a fragility to Hesse’s work; the rubber and other materials she used just don’t last, therefore evoking the fragility of the human body but also the human psyche.

‘Right After’ (1969) was one of the last pieces Hesse made before she died. Inspired by Jackson Pollock’s drip works, this work was formed utilizing gravity, allowing the fiberglass to dry while suspended. This work is also an example of her using the gallery space in order to structure the work, tethered to the ceiling, in an almost primitive way.tumblr_mn7ajnfN9C1s60wu6o1_1280



Although Morris and Hesse use ‘industrial’ materials, they are not rigid, but instead pliable, and fluid. The hanging of their works and focus on materials are the primary qualities which create a dialogue between these artists, yet one is clean and symmetrical while the other embraces process and imperfection. I intend to merge these two characteristics, experimenting with the process and manipulation of textiles, to create pleasing uniform shapes, whilst not losing the textural qualities of the raw material.


Key Concepts: Portable Exhibition

Portable = Something you can carry in your hand.

‘The Makapansgat Pebble’ – This is not a man made item, the apparent face was formed by the sea. Possibly the earliest example of symbolic thinking or aesthetic sense in the human heritage, as the pebble was most likely brought back to the finders cave.csukfnjw8aayfjo


Netsuke – Ivory carvings form Japan, used as a toggle hooked through a belt from which hung a bag or bod for storage.

Art-O-Mat – Art-o-mat® machines are retired cigarette vending machines that have been converted to vend art.photo1174.jpeg

Levi Fisher Ames ‘Menagerie’ – Ames created a vast wooden menagerie of animals from around the world, as well as bizarre or heroic characters. Glass-fronted boxes were customized to accommodate the various-sized carvings. Hinged in the center, they open like a book to reveal the creatures within.jcr-content.jpg

The American Flea Circus – Fleas are attached to miniature carts and other items, and encouraged to perform circus acts within a small housing.flea-circus-hp-orig.jpg

Marcel Duchamp ‘Suitcases’ – Miniature versions of his own works within a suitcase.Duchamp-Box-in-a-Valise-full.jpg

George Maciunas ‘Flxus Box’ 1960’s – small boxes containing cards and objects designed and assembled by artistsaaca_gugg_0109_20.jpg

Ozawa ‘Beyond the White Cube’ – Mini art gallery untitled.png

Herbert Distell ‘Museum of Draws’ 1970 1997 – The world’s smallest museum of microscopic twentieth-century art.eae6f325a8662a3f7989513b97bb2d1a


Athletes of the Heart: session 2

First were were introduced to the stop frame animation software we would be using to construct our animations: Dragon frame. This software allows you to have a live view of your frame as well as showing a translucent image of your previous frame, for reference. In addition, you can compare your fames to the music itself. You can upload the track directly into the software.

Depending on the materials/techniques people were thinking of using, we were then split into groups (hopefully with people not from your subject). Then were each given an extract of of the 3min composition. My group was given the ending (roughly 30sec).

In our groups we discussed our ideas, settling on a form of mark-making using paint, to create a raw textural effect.


We all went away to experiment with different types of marks, tool and colours.

img_0011I chose to work with acrylic. The thickness of the paint and fast drying time, meant I could layer up different colours and marks resulting in a wonderful blend of tonal qualities. The slight opacity of the paint crated a surprisingly beautiful effect.

img_8188img_8189img_8190img_8193img_8194img_8195img_8197img_8198Little hints of all the colours peek through each layer making for a dense spectrum of tones. The surface of the paint has a wonderful sheen, which enhances the depth of the colours.img_8196img_8199

I worked on A3 paper, so that I had a bit more room to experiment. However, it is the small close up details of the paint which are really interesting. You are able to see brush strokes and the texture of the paint, forming a more abstract composition. I feel our animation would work really well on this smaller scale.

I alsto tested applying the paint in different ways, for example paining horizontal lines, and layering them. This approach was not as effective. The blending of the colours, created a mucky tone, rather than the beautiful patches of tone in the previous painting.

Etching: different colours and paper

In an effort to explore a wider variety of etching effects, I have experimented with the different coloured inks and types of paper. I chose to continue using the same plates (acanthus leaves) as my previous print, in order to explore purely how the ink and paper change the effect of the print.

1) Blue and green ink on cream paper: img_7984I am not an avid user of colours. Usually I stick to neutral tones or black and white. I feel that sometimes colours can be a distraction from the line itself. Especially within my work last year, when I was exploring mark making. I wanted the qualities of the mark and the process of making the mark to be the focus. I actually ended up using ‘mundane materials’ (pen and paper) to create my final piece, to express a sense of minimalism, in the power of a line.

So colour, I suppose, is out of my comfort zone. These colours are not that extreme, butthey are more than I would normally use. When it comes to printing, I really love the look of black almost ‘grungy’ looking prints, that I tend to stick with that aesthetic approach to print.

2) White in on brown paper:img_7977I wanted to see an inverted version of my print, but at first we couldn’t find any black paper; so I used brown. This print has a far softer look. It reminds me of the previous faded prints I made, in the fact that it virtually looks ‘smokey’.

3) White ink on black paper:img_7981This is a more truly negative look of my previous prints. This is my favourite of this set of four prints. The colours go back to my usual asthetic approach (black and white) but there is just something pleasing about it to me.

4) Black ink on cream paper with tissue paper:img_7975I went a little obscure with this print. Or at least I feel it obscure. The tissue paper seems like an obvious distraction or rebellion from the delicate, traditional looking print.

Dino & Jake Chapman (Etching)

The Chapman Brothers are English visual artists, well known for their deliberately shocking subject matter. They began collaborating in 1991 and have worked in a variety of mediums, including fibreglass and plastic, to make sculptural works. However, they are also known for their etchings.

Whilst researching etching I came across a series of etchings the Chapman brothers made by reworking/’improving’ William Hogarth’s series of eight paintings (later he also made them into etchings) entitled ‘A Rakes Progress’ (images below). This painted series was the main inspiration for Grayson Perry’s ‘The Vanity of small differences’. Hogarth tells the story of a man named Tom Bakewell. Tom is a young man who inherits a fortune from his miserly father, spends it all on fashionable pursuits and gambling, marries for money, gambles away a second fortune, goes to debtors’ prison and dies in a madhouse. Perry’s character was named ‘Tim Rakewell’.

The Chapman Brothers have doctored the original series by Hogarth, by ‘defacing‘ them. They have made the faces of the people grotesque. Some of the faces are somewhat humorous like a snowman, others are more disturbing, such as animals/monsters and almost gruesome faces.

‘Dino’s and Jake’s Progress’ 20071285-e13747505274571286-e13747505715981287-e13747506155981288-e1374750665228-680x5201289-e13747507234801290-e13747508133501291-e1374750853424-680x5171292-e1374751090617

These doctored etchings and Grayson Perry’s tapestries are two examples of different ways of taking inspiration from existing artworks. One has taken the format of a series of images depicting a story, and the other is almost mocking the original by completely altering your impression of the work, by making it ‘shocking’.

What’s interesting to me is that both Perry and the Chapman brothers have used bright/bold colours in their recreations. Personally I don’t tend to use bright, garish colours in my work, I prefer a more neutral/subtle tonal range. I wonder if their choice of colour was in an effort to create a more ‘modern’ look for their work in comparison to Hogarth. Are bright colours considered ‘modern’? It is possible that Hogarth’s colour scheme was originally brighter, but has faded over time. Colour is a powerful tool in art in terms of impression, association and symbolism. I am interested in pursuing pattern within my project, moving on from William Morris and beginning to explore the semiotics of pattern. Colour is extremely likely to play a large part in that.